» A look at compile time computation in C++

» January 14, 2015 | cpp development english | Adrian Kummerländer

The C++ language landscape may be pretty old by now but that doesn’t mean that its continental plates have ceased their movement and no new and exciting things happen anymore. To the contrary the recently approved C++14 standard picks up what was started in C++11 by continuing to modernize and empower the language via e.g. introducing generic lambda expressions and relaxing the restrictions on the constexpr keyword. Especially the last improvement caused me to think about how one could use the new language features to perform compile time computation in a fashion actually applicable in practice. This is what I want to talk about in this article.

Besides C-style macros C++ templates present one additional language element that is guaranteed by the standard to be executed at compile time. In this context the proof that this template system is Turing complete manages to both illustrate its power and demonstrate its bewildering complexity. As it is pretty unrealistic that one would implement common application logic in terms of a Turing machine just to achieve compile time computation, a easier way of expressing compile time programs has to be found.

Compile time list processing

My first attempt at facilitating compile time computation is a functional-style list library based on template metaprogramming: ConstList. This library handles lists in a fashion simmilar to how it is done in languages such as Scheme or Haskell, i.e. by providing functions such as fold and map which manipulate a basic list type based on Cons expressions. As an example one may consider how ConstList’s map function is expressed in terms of foldr:

template <
    typename Cons,
    typename Function
constexpr auto map(const Cons& cons, const Function& function) {
    return foldr(
        [&function](auto car, auto cdr) {
            return concatenate(make(function(car)), cdr);

The foldr implementation is also quite straightforward and simply applies a given function to each pair of the Cons structure using static recursion. Note that this approach of lambda expression based template metaprogramming would have been much more verbose in C++11 as many list manipulators such as map and foldr make use of C++14’s generic lambda expressions. While the test cases provide a set of - in my opinion - reasonably nice list transformations and queries they also present the core problem of the particular approach taken in ConstList, as it is impossible to return lists of varying lengths depending on their contents. This pervasive limitation exists because the only way to vary types at compile time depending on values is to use these values as template parameters. That is the Cons list type tree would have to be both list declaration and definition, analogously to e.g. std::integral_constant. Obviously this is quite different from how types and values were separated into templates and member constants in ConstList. One would have to think of types as values and templates as functions that modify those values instead.

Furthermore the compilation performance degrades noticeably when manipulating lists with more than a couple of dozen items or plainly fails to execute at compile time at all. What works in a reasonably consistent fashion are list manipulations such as this one, which evaluates down to a hard coded 1056 in GCC’s Assembler output:

#include "list.h"

int main(int, char**) {
    const auto list = ConstList::make(1, 2,  /* [...] */ 31, 32);

    return ConstList::foldr(
            [](auto x) {
                return x * 2;
        [](auto x, auto y){
            return x + y;

To summarize: The approach taken in my implementation of ConstList may be a nice exercise in template metaprogramming and writing functional-style C++ code but its practical applications in compile time computation are unreasonably narrow.

Spectroscopy of constexpr

As was already mentioned, prior to the C++11 standard the only way to perform compile time computations was to rely on macros and template metaprogramming. While both of those can be thought of as separate functional-style languages inside C++, the constexpr keyword allows one to declare a normal function as potentially executable at compile time. So contrary to template metaprogramming based solutions we don’t have a strong guarantee that our compile time program is actually evaluated at compile time and would have to look at the generated Assembler output when in doubt. Sadly this is actually not much more than what is possible in normal C++ compiled by a sufficiently smart compiler, e.g. the listing below is evaluated at compile time by GCC without any usage of constexpr or template metaprogramming:

int example(int x) {
    return 2 * x;

int recursive_example(const int& target, int current = 0) {
    if ( current == target) {
        return current;
    } else {
        return recursive_example(target, ++current);

int main(int, char**) {
    return example(

Where the verbose Assembler output is acquired as follows (note that the same command also works for Clang):

> g++ -S -fverbose-asm -O2 example.cc -o example.asm
> grep example.asm -n -e 42
95: movl    $42, %eax   #,

One area where the example above would not work and one would thus require the constexpr keyword, is when one wants to use the result of a function as e.g. a template parameter or any other value that is required by the standard to be defined at compile time. While this is certainly useful it - contrary to what one could think after first hearing about constexpr - doesn’t quite enable one to explicitly write compile time programs in the same way as normal programs.

Types as values and templates as functions

As I hinted at previously the only way to handle e.g. lists in the same way as in ConstList while enabling value-dependent result types is to think of types as values and templates as functions. This translates to each CAR value of a Cons being stored in the form of a std::integral_constant specialization instantiation.

This would limit all compile time operations performed in this manner to only dealing with values that can be passed as template parameters, to cite the standard:

A non-type template-parameter shall have one of the following (optionally cv-qualified) types:
- integral or enumeration type, […]
(ISO C++ Standard draft, N3797, p. 329)

Where integral types are defined as follows:

Types bool, char, char16_t, char32_t, wchar_t, and the signed and unsigned integer types are collectively called integral types. A synonym for integral type is integer type. […]
(ISO C++ Standard draft, N3797, p. 86)

So as it turns out the restriction imposed by being forced to rely on template parameters is not as severe as I for one thought at first, especially since compositions of these types in e.g. structures are not hindered by this. For example usage of templates such as std::tuple and even compile time string operations via variadic template parameter packs of type char should be possible.

After this brief look at compile time computation in C++, the approach detailed in this last section seems to be the most promising. While it is sadly not possible to consistently write code to be executed at compile time using constexpr, this newly extended keyword certainly enables writing some parts of a primarily template metaprogramming based program in normal C++ which is very helpful. Personally my next step in this context will be to revamp ConstList to use std::integral_constant for value storage instead of member constants in an attempt at developing a way of manipulating data at compile time in a functional fashion.